Research and Reviews
Summaries of these articles can be found at results at a glance.
Research and published reports are listed by primary investigator, title and year in reverse chronological order.
Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia. Expert Review of Devices, 4(4):489-495, 2007.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – Part 2. Practical Pain Management, 7(5):32-40, 2007.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – Part 1. Practical Pain Management, 7(4):33-41, 2007
Childs, Allen and Price, Larry. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in violent neuropsychiatric patients. Primary Psychiatry, 14(3):50-56, 2007.
Sussman, Norman. Editor’s Note: What next? Overcoming treatment resistance. Primary Psychiatry. 2007;14(3):15-16.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders: statistical considerations – Part 2. Practical Pain Management, 7(3):22-39, 2007.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall. A review and meta-analysis of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders – Part 1. Practical Pain Management, 7(2):40-47, 2007.
Tan, Gabriel, Alverez, Julie A., and Jensen, Mark P. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in pain management. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 62(11):1419-1431, 2006.
Kirsch, Daniel L. Electromedical Treatment of Headaches. Practical Pain Management, 6(8):58-65, 2006.
Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43(4):461-474, 2006. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006.
Kirsch, Daniel L. Microcurrent electrical therapy (MET): A tutorial. Practical Pain Management, 6(7):59-64, 2006.
Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Practical Pain Management, 6(6):60-64,2006.
Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia and other conditions. Insert: Giordano, James. Illustrating how CES works. Natural Medicine, 23:118-120, 2006.
Childs, Allen. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in violent retarded population: a preliminary report. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(4): 548-551, 2005.
Plotnick, Stephen E. Finding hope: Alpha-Stim 100 may help clinicians yield better fibromyalgia treatment results. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, P. 82, May 2005.
Frick, Ava. Microcurrent electrical therapy heals a recalcitrant wound in a horse. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 25(11): 418-422, 2005. Presented at Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas, NV, February 24, 2005.
Gilula, Marshall F., and Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation review: a safer alternative to psychopharmaceuticals in the treatment of depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):7-26, 2005. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation 12th Annual Conference, August 26-29, 2004 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Overcash, Stephen. The effect of ROSHI protocol and cranial electrotherapy stimulation on a 9-year-old anxious, dyslexic male with attention deficit disorder: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):63-77, 2005.
Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on pain associated with fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; Volume 8, Number 2.
Gilula, Marshall F. and Barach, Paul R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: a safe neuromedical treatment for anxiety, depression or insomnia. Southern Medical Journal. 97(12):1269-1270, 2004.
Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim. The control of chronic pain using microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery April 14, 2004.
Kirsch, Daniel, L. and Smith R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, depression, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and pain. In Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Paul J. Rosch, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, Pp 727-740, 2004.
Kennerly, Richard. QEEG analysis of cranial electrotherapy: a pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy (8)2, 2004. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas.
Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F. Treating spinal cord injury pain with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (abstract). Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26(3), 2003. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003.
Scherder, E., Knol, D., van Someren, E., Deijen, J-B, Binnekade, R., Tilders, F. and Sergeant, J. Effects of low-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17(2):101-108, 2003.
Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The Original Internist, 9(3):25-28, September, 2002.
Smith, Ray B. Microcurrent therapies: emerging theories of physiological information processing. NeuroRehabilitation, 17(1):3-7, 2002.
Kirsch, Daniel L. Postmarketing survey of Alpha-Stim CES patients. Summarized here and presented in detail in the book The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation, 2nd Ed., Medical Scope Publishing Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2002.
Kirsch, Daniel L. A practical protocol for electromedical treatment of pain. Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002.
Kirsch, Daniel, L. Electromedicine: the other side of physiology. Chapter 60 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Acadamy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, Pp 749-758, 2002.
Tomaszek, David E., and Morehead, Kenneth. The use of CES in reducing pain in spinal pain patients. 2001.
Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2(2):99-102, 2001.
Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
Smith, Ray B. Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective. American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2):62-66, 2001.
Tyers, Steve and Smith, Ray B. A comparison of cranial electrotherapy stimulation alone or with chiropractic therapies in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The American Chiropractor, 23(2):39-41, 2001.
Debock, Patrick. European perspective: a comparison between TENS and MET. Physical Therapy Products. September: 28-33, 2000.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation, 14(2):85-94, 2000.
Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K., Bruce J., Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and University Medical Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA. The effect of microcurrent stimulation on postoperative pain after patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.
Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000.
Tan, Gabriel, Monga, Trilok, and Thornby, John. Efficacy of microcurrent electrical stimulation on pain severity, psychological distress, and disability. American Journal of Pain Management, 10(1):35-44, 2000. Unedited abstract with rebuttal to the editor.
Smith, Ray B, Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of stress related cognitive dysfunction, with an eighteen month follow up. Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17(6):14-18, 1999.
McClure, Mark W., and Morehead, Kenneth. A pilot study of the use of microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. October, 1999.
Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E. Quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 112:2075-2083, 2001. Doctoral dissertation, The
Winick, Reid L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice. General Dentistry, 47(1):50-55, 1999.
Overcash, Stephen J. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in patients suffering from acute anxiety disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine, 16(1):49-51, 1999.
Alpher, Elliott J., et. al. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998. Presented at the Ninth Annual Clinical Meeting of the American Academy of Pain Management, Atlanta, Georgia, September, 1998.
Heffernan, Michael. The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997.
Heffernan, Michael. Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31(3):202-209, 1996.
Heffernan, Michael. The effect of a single cranial electrotherapy stimulation on multiple stress measures. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 147:60-64, 1995. Presented at the Eighth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux Switzerland, February 1996.
Voris, Marshall D., et. al., and Good, Shirley. Treating sexual offenders using cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Medical Scope Monthly, 3(11):14-18, 1996.
Voris, Marshall D. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute, Dallas and Corpus Christi, Texas, 1995.
Mercola, Joseph M. and Kirsch, Daniel L. The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy in conventional medical practice. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 8(2):107-120, 1995.
May, Brad, et. al. Pilot project using the Alpha-Stim 100 for drug and alcohol abuse. August, 1993.
Smith, Ray B, et. al. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to block fear perception in phobic patients. Journal of Current Therapeutic Research, 51(2):249-253, 1992.
King, GE, et al. Electrotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen: promising treatments for postradiation complications. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 62(3):331-334, 1989. Also published in the book, Emerging Electromagnetic Medicine, 283-289, edited by ME O'Conner, RHC Bentall and JC Monahan, Springer Verlag, New York, 1990.
Boswell, NS. Neuroelectric therapy eliminates xerostomia during radiotherapy - A case history. Medical Electronics, 115:105-107, February, 1989.
Overcash, Stephen J, et. al. The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and multisensory cognitive therapy on the personality and anxiety levels of substance abuse patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2):105-111, 1989.
Zimmerman, Stephen I, et. al. Biofeedback and electromedicine reduce the cycle of pain spasm pain in low back patients. Medical Electronics, 117:108-120, June 1989. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987.
Gibson, Thomas H, et. al. Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology, 152 pages, 1983.
Madden, R, et. al. Low intensity electrostimulation improves human learning of a psychomotor task. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(2):41-45, 1987. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 95 pages, 1987. Presented at The New Brain Technologies and Accelerated Learning Conference at the University of Hawaii, April, 1987.
Brotman, Philip. Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the efficacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting reflex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986.
Roth, Peter M, et. al. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986.
Engelberg, M, et. al. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 95(10):1,167-1,173, 1985. Presented at the Meeting of the Southern Section of the American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, January, 1985.
Nolan, FF. The effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on the orthodontic movement of teeth. Masters thesis, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston, Dental Branch, 49 pages, 1985.
Boswell, NS, et. al. Noninvasive electrical stimulation for the treatment of radiotherapy side effects. American Journal of Electromedicine, 2(3), 1985. Presented at the International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer, Baltimore, Maryland, July, 1984.
Brovar, Alan. Cocaine detoxification with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): A preliminary appraisal. International Electromedicine Institute Newsletter, 1(4), July/Aug, 1984. Also in Brain/Mind Bulletin, 9(14), August, 1984.
Bauer, William. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Archives of Otolaryngology, 109(6):382-383, 1983.
Lerner, Fred N, et. al. A doubleblind comparative study of microstimulation and placebo effect in short term treatment of the chronic back pain patient. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, 15(11):101-106, 1981.