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Comments on Follow-Up From All CES Research Studies

One hundred percent of the 17 studies that included follow-up showed CES to have positive long term, cumulative effects. None of these studies revealed any long term, negative adverse effects.

From Pivotal Scientific Studies:

Study No.
First Author, Year
N Subject
Description
Author’s Comments on Follow-up
4
Brotman, Philip
1986
36 classical migraine patients

The CES group responded significantly better than the other 2 groups over the 3 month follow-up. Only the CES group showed significant carry-over effects in finger temerature.

5
Brovar, Alan
1984

25

cocaine abusers

A follow-up of the 3 groups from 6 to 8 months later showed that no CES patients had returned for treatment, while 50% of the CES refusers and 39% of the controls had recidivated.

14
Flemenbaum, A.
1974
28

anxiety, depression, insomnia, outpatients unresponsive to medications

Those who had beneficial results maintained them throughout the 6 month follow-up.

15
Forster, Sigmund
1963
23

inducing sleep

Follow-up of patients up to 1 year after treatment has not revealed any harmful side effects.

20
Hearst, E.D.
1974
28

psychotherapy outpatients

3 patients showed continued improvement for 2 weeks to 2 months.

21
Heffernan, Michael
1995

20

generalized stress >1 year, unresponsive to meds

1 week follow-up measures in the CES group showed significant carryover effects in EMG and HR, but were not significant at the .05 level for finger temperature or capacitance.

22
Hochman, Richard
1988
600

dental patients

From the results obtained during 1 year of treating a variety of patients requiring a broad scope of dental treatments, CES was found to provide a safe, noninvasive, readily acceptable, adjunctive analgesic modality to maintain patient comfort through the majority of dental procedures for most patients.

36
Magora, F.
1967

A: 20

B: 9

A: Anxiety, depression, insomnia hospitalized polysubstance abusers and
B: asthmatic children

A: Follow-up has continued for 8-12 months after treatment and has revealed no relapse.

B: The asthmatic attacks stopped completely in 3 children and 4 months later the children felt well without taking any drugs.

40
Matteson, Michael
1986

62

32 CES graduate students,
22 contols

A follow-up measure 2 weeks post study found that 11 of the 13 variables were still significantly improved in the treatment group.

42
Moore, J.A.
1975

17

anxiety and insomnia patients

Despite largely negative findings several subjects reported “a remarkable improvement” in their symptoms 2-3 weeks after CES.

45
Overcash, Stephen
1999
197

anxiety outpatients

On 6-8 month follow-up, 73% of the patients were “well satisfied” with their treatment and had no significant regression or other anxiety disorder, 18% were “satisfied” but had some problem with anxiety since they stopped the treatment, and 9% chose not to respond, had significant symptoms since stopping the treatment, or in 1 case, “was not satisfied.”

48
Patterson, M.
1984
186

hospitalized alcohol and polysubstance abusers

Of a 50% response to follow-up, 78.5% were addiction-free (80.3% of drug addicts) 1 to 8 years after CES, with an average time in rehabilitation of only 16 days. Alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use were decreased in 64%. Diminished drug use was reported in 76% of recidivists. 17% had 1 treatment after CES (another CES treatment or other hospital treatment), and 1% had 2 treatments. This compares favorably with a U.S. government survey showing that 26% to 43% had repeat treatments every year after the initial treatment, for up to 6 years.

67
Smith, Ray B.
1993
23

psychiatric outpatients with anxiety, depression, ADD

On 18 month follow-up the patients performed as well or better than in the original study.

84
Weiss, Marc F.
1973

10

insomnia patients

All differences found were maintained at the 2 week and 2 year follow-up.

From Supporting Scientific Studies:

7
Cartwright, R.D.
1975
10

sleep onset insomnia patients

Only 1 of 4 responders relapsed during the 2 year no-treatment period.

17
Klimke, A.
1991

50

schizophrenic
and psychotic
patients
unresponsive
to medications

3 months after discharge from hospital 9 schizophrenics (32.1%) but only 3 patients with affective psychosis (13.6%) presented a “good outcome” (full remission).

18
Koegler, R.R.
1971
14

insomnia patients

Some patients maintained their improvement 4 months later, while others had partial return of symptoms. None regressed completely.

39
Turaeva, V.A.
1967

156

eczema and neuro- dermatitis patients

12 months follow-up revealed that the positive effects of CES was sufficiently stable.

Excerpted from:

Kirsch, Daniel L. The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (2nd Ed), Medical Scope Publishing Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2002, Chapter 9:131-135. © 2002-4 by DL Kirsch, Mineral Wells, Texas.


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